Posted: 2010-06-18 / Updated: 2018-02-07
To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:
Unlike English, Korean makes no distinction for the choice of verb to be (am, are, is) between first-person, second-person and third-person subjects. Only a single verb to be 이다 is used.
We only attach 이다 (or its modified forms) to nouns and noun phrases.Similarities and Differences Between Korean Verbs and Adjectivesand do not require 이다 for sentence construction.
Summary for Korean Verb To Be 이다 (Present, Past, Present Negative)
|Speech Level||Plain Form||Formal Polite||Informal Polite||Formal Casual||Informal Casual|
|is, am, are||이다||입니다||이에요/예요||인다||이야/야|
|is not, am not, are not||아니다||아닙니다||아니에요||아닌다||아니야|
Recall that the subject of a sentence can be omitted (if it is understood by the context), and Word Order of Korean Sentences.
The Korean sentences above with different Honorific Speech and Speech Levels in Korean convey the same meanings. Notice that 책 (book) is a noun in the sentences.
The choice of 이에요/예요 and 이야/야 is based on Consonant Vowel Sequences in Spoken Korean.
- If the noun ends with a vowel, use 예요 or 야.
- If the noun ends with a consonant, use 이에요 or 이야.
Related Grammar Points
- Korean Verb and Adjective Conjugation
- Similarities and Differences Between Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Word Stems of Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Formal Polite Form of Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Common Korean Verbs
- Past Tense of Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Informal Polite Form of Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Spacing in Written Korean