SayJack » particles

Particle (으)로 for Methods and Ways

To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:

Particle (으)로 indicates methods or ways to accomplish an action, can be translated as by means of in English.

  • Use for words ending with vowel or consonant ㄹ
  • Use 으로 for words ending with consonant
비행기로 왔어요.
I came by plane.
한국말로 말합시다.
Let’s speak in Korean.
국수는 젓가락으로 먹어요.
We eat noodles with chopsticks.

Particle 의 for Possessiveness

To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:

Particle indicates ownership by connecting two nouns together. As a possessive particle, 의 is usually pronounced as /에/, but it could still be pronounced as /의/.


You may use 의 more than once in a phrase.

선생님의 친구의 차
a car of teacher’s friend

Particle 와/과 and 하고 for Being Together

To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:

Particle 하고 means with when it is used with a noun to indicate being together.

어머니하고 병원에 갔어요.
I went to hospital with my mother.

하고 is more commonly used in the spoken language, and / are more commonly used in written form.

  • Use for words ending with vowel
  • Use for words ending with consonant

Attention: the choice of 와/과 is an exception to Consonant-Vowel Sequence in Spoken Korean.

Particle 와/과 and 하고 for Connecting Nouns

To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:

Introduction to Korean Particles

Particle 하고 means and to connect two or more nouns. Notice that only nouns (but not phrases) can be connected by 하고.


하고 is more commonly used in the spoken language, and / are more commonly used in written form.

영어와 일본어
English and Japanese
꽃과 나비
flowers and butterflies

  • Use for words ending with vowel
  • Use for words ending with consonant

Attention: the choice of 와/과 is an exception to Consonant-Vowel Sequence in Spoken Korean.

Direct Object Particle 을/를

Particle / is used with a noun which is a direct object for an action verb in a sentence.

영화를 봐요.
I watch a movie.
신문을 사요.
I buy newspaper.

  • Use for words ending with vowel
  • Use for words ending with consonant

For the choice of 을/를, please refer to Consonant-Vowel Sequence in Spoken Korean for more details.

Notice that 을/를 is often dropped in spoken Korean.


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