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Particle 와/과 and 하고 for Being Together

To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:

Particle 하고 means with when it is used with a noun to indicate being together.

어머니하고 병원에 갔어요.
I went to hospital with my mother.

하고 is more commonly used in the spoken language, and / are more commonly used in written form.

  • Use for words ending with vowel
  • Use for words ending with consonant

Attention: the choice of 와/과 is an exception to Consonant-Vowel Sequence in Spoken Korean.

Particle 와/과 and 하고 for Connecting Nouns

To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:

Introduction to Korean Particles

Particle 하고 means and to connect two or more nouns. Notice that only nouns (but not phrases) can be connected by 하고.


하고 is more commonly used in the spoken language, and / are more commonly used in written form.

영어와 일본어
English and Japanese
꽃과 나비
flowers and butterflies

  • Use for words ending with vowel
  • Use for words ending with consonant

Attention: the choice of 와/과 is an exception to Consonant-Vowel Sequence in Spoken Korean.

Direct Object Particle 을/를

Particle / is used with a noun which is a direct object for an action verb in a sentence.

영화를 봐요.
I watch a movie.
신문을 사요.
I buy newspaper.

  • Use for words ending with vowel
  • Use for words ending with consonant

For the choice of 을/를, please refer to Consonant-Vowel Sequence in Spoken Korean for more details.

Notice that 을/를 is often dropped in spoken Korean.


Directional Particle 에

To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:

Directional particle means to or towards. It is used with action verbs.


Location Particle 에 and 에서

To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:

Location particle is used with non-action verbs such as 있다, 이다 or 살다 (to exist, to be, to live).


Location particle 에서 is used with action verbs to convey the place of action, as opposed to location of being.


Unlike in or at in English, the use of 에 and 에서 as location markers cannot be interchanged.

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