SayJack » 2010 » April

Essential Concepts and Terms for Grammar Study

Verb

A verb is a word to convey an action (e.g. run, read, bring), or a state of being (e.g. is, has, live). We will call them action verbs and non-action verbs respectively.

It is an essential element in a sentence.

Noun

A noun is a word to represent an object (e.g. book), a concept (e.g. chemistry) and so forth. A pronoun is a word designated to substitute a noun (e.g. this, he, them). A proper noun is a noun representing a unique entity (e.g. London, John).

Pronouns are relatively few. The rest of the nouns belong to an open category, with new words emerged and added to the dictionary in a living language.

Adjective

An adjective (e.g. big) is a word designated to modify a noun (e.g. house).

Notice that many nouns (including pronouns) can be used to modify other nouns (e.g. chocolate factory, our country). Some modified forms of verbs can also be used to modify nouns too (e.g. smiling girl, broken heart).

Adverb

An adverb is a word used to modify adjectives, verbs, another adverbs, and even a whole sentence, but never used to modify nouns.

In English, an adverb often ends in -ly (e.g. happily). Other common example adverbs are: very, more, indeed.

Particle

A particle is a word used to indicate relationships between the word it tries to link (its object), and the rest of the sentence.

In English, it is usually called preposition (e.g. in, at, for), because it is used before its object. In Japanese or Korean, it is also called postposition or marker.

Modifying a Word: Conjugation and Declension

Conjugation is modifying a verb from its dictionary or principle form. Declension is the modification for nouns and adjectives.

In English, for example, goes is a modified form of the verb go, and men is a modified form of the noun man.

Phrase

A phrase is part of a sentence which by itself is meaningful.

The most common types of phrases are noun phrases and verb phrases, which function like nouns and verbs respectively in a sentence.

Subject and Predicate

A complete sentence usually contains a subject and a predicate. A subject is a noun or noun phrase in a sentence, it is what the sentence is about. A predicate describes the subject in a sentence.

Running is a good exercise.
Running is the subject, and is a good exercise is the predicate.

Object and Transitive/Intransitive Verbs

An object which complements an action verb completes the verb’s meaning. It is always part of a predicate.

A direct object answers the question “what?” in a sentence, and an indirect object is usually the recipient of the direct object.

I give you a book.
book is the direct object and you is the indirect object

Not all action verbs take objects. Verbs that take objects are called transitive verbs, those do not take objects are called intransitive verbs. A verb can be both transitive and intransitive in different situations.

She breaks the vase.
break is a transitive verb
He jumps.
jump is an intransitive verb
I eat (apples).
eat is both transitive and intransitive

SayJack Chinese Learning Materials

If you are an absolute beginner, please start your Chinese learning career by going over pinyin, the notations for Mandarin Chinese sound and tones.

We have hundreds of Chinese vocabulary lists. You may quiz yourself on each vocabulary list, and print flashcards for review. You may also compare your Chinese vocabulary power with other users. After becoming a member, you may create your own vocabulary list as well.

For those who want to learn Chinese characters, we have separate sections for traditional characters and simplified characters. We also have a tool for practicing writing them. It is one of our many tools of our language exchange platform.

If you don’t know how to type and input Chinese yet, be sure to check out our Chinese IME (Input Method Editor). You don’t need to install anything, as long as your computer can display Chinese characters. You may only input one character at a time for now, but we will extend the functions to allow input phrases as well.

Feel free to write a comment if you have any questions or suggestions. Please help SayJack become a better language learning website by actively helping others. Thanks!

SayJack Korean Learning Materials

If you are an absolute beginner, please start your Korean learning career by going over hangul, the Korean alphabet.

We have hundreds of Korean vocabulary lists. You may quiz yourself on each vocabulary list, print flashcards for review. You may also compare your Korean vocabulary power with other users.

For those who want to learn Korean hanja, we have a tool for practicing writing it. It is also one of our many tools of our language exchange platform.

If you don’t know how to type and input Korean hangul yet, be sure to check out our Korean IME (Input Method Editor). You don’t need to install anything, as long as your computer can display Korean characters. After becoming a member, you may create your own vocabulary list easily by using our online Korean IME to input Korean characters.

Feel free to write a comment if you have any questions or suggestions. Please help SayJack become a better language learning website by actively helping others. Thanks!

SayJack Japanese Learning Materials

If you are an absolute beginner, please start your Japanese learning career by going over hiragana, the Japanese alphabet.

We have hundreds of Japanese vocabulary lists. You may quiz yourself on each vocabulary list and print flashcards for review. You may also compare your Japanese vocabulary power with other users.

For those who want to learn Japanese kanji, we have a tool for practicing writing it. It is also one of our many tools of our language exchange platform.

For JLPT (Japanese language proficiency test) test taker, check out this JLPT N5 verb list, flash cards and vocabulary quiz as an example how our mnemonic tools can assist your learning. I will provide the website with more JLPT study materials very soon.

If you don’t know how to type and input Japanese alphabets yet, be sure to check out our online Japanese IME (Input Method Editor). You don’t need to install anything, as long as your computer can display Japanese characters. Anyway, after becoming a member, you may create your own vocabulary list easily by using our online Japanese IME to input hiragana or katakana.

Feel free to write a comment if you have any questions or suggestions. Please help SayJack become a better language learning website by actively helping others. Thanks!

SayJack English Learning Materials

We have hundreds of vocabulary lists for GRE, SAT, TOEFL and TOEIC test takers. You may quiz yourself on each vocabulary list, and print flashcards for review. You may also compare your English vocabulary power with other users. After becoming a member, you may create your own vocabulary list easily.

If you are already good at English, please check out our language exchange section to offer help in English speaking, listening, making example sentences or creating your own sentences.

Feel free to write a comment if you have any questions or suggestions. Please help SayJack to become a better language learning website by actively helping others. Thanks!